1 For this document 1 Roentgen (R=gamma or x-ray exposure in air) ≈ 1 rad (absorbed dose) ≈ 1 rem (biological effect in tissue) Source: Buddemeier BR, Dillon MB. Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism. Livermore, CA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLNL-TR-410067, August 2009. http://www.remm.nlm.gov/IND_ResponsePlanning_LLNL-TR-410067.pdf. Accessed June 28, 2010.
2 Since the Chernobyl accident, more than 330,000 people have been relocated away from the more affected areas: 116,000 of them were evacuated immediately after the accident, whereas a larger number were resettled several years later, when the benefits of relocation were less evident. Although resettlement reduced the population’s radiation doses, it was for many a deeply traumatic experience. Even when resettlers were compensated for their losses, offered free houses and given a choice of resettlement location, many retained a deep sense of injustice about the process. Many are unemployed and believe they are without a place in society and have little control over their own lives. Some older resettlers may never adjust. Source & ©: UN Chernobyl Forum, Chernobyl’s Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts (2006)
3 MedMap is an interactive geographic information system (GIS)-based mapping system in development by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). This system improves situational awareness by providing immediate resource information via electronic inputs from various data streams to help determine potential medical care sites and assembly centers, evacuation routes, hazards, potential impact areas and other pertinent data important for the response to hazards and events. Sources: Statement by RADM W. Craig Vanderwagen, Safeguarding Our Nation: HHS Emergency Preparedness Efforts. Committee on Homeland Security, Subcommittee on Emerging Threats, Cybersecurity, Science, Technology and Government Affairs: Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008. http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/2008/07/t20080722a.html. Accessed June 17, 2010.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Fiscal Year 2010 Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund Justification of Estimates for Appropriations Committees. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2009. http://dhhs.gov/asfr/ob/docbudget/2010phssef.pdf. Accessed June 17, 2010.